Basics of continuity testing, including use of digital multimeters and dedicated continuity testers.
Electrophoresis technique is a method of separation in clinical laboratories to separate charged molecules from each other and into their constituents’ components. This happen in the presence of electric field. The electric field device is a typical ion exchanger, You can use it to separate many things such as proteins in body fluids for example urine, proteins in erythrocytes such as hemoglobin and Nucleic acids. Typically DNA and RNA just to mention a few.
In fact, many factors are responsible for the output of this procedure and are inherent, external and environmental. Inherent factors include magnitude of charge, charge density, molecular weight, and shapes of the material under investigation. Likewise, external and environmental factors include pH, electric field, viscosity of the solution, and temperature.
However, this process employs the use of electricity to separate charges in the presence of electric fields. The main electrical parameters used in electrophoresis are Voltage and Current or Power. High voltage is responsible to provide the electric field. However, when current pass through a substance with resistance and in this case the buffer, it evolves heat. Therefore, it is important to choose carefully combination of parameters to use for a particular procedure.
A typical instrument comprises of an electrophoresis tank and an electrophoresis power supply. The power supply is usually high voltage source to create the presence of electric field within the solution. The tank is a plastic material with two electrodes of tungsten or constantan. One electrode connects to the negative terminal of the power supply. The other electrode connects to the positive terminal of the high tension power supply. Moreover, the tank serves as container for the buffer and gel.
In electrophoresis, you hold one electrical parameter, current, voltage or power constant, but ideally you keep voltage constant. That is, keeping the voltage steady. But why is this so?
- Under constant current conditions (velocity of moving charge is directly proportional to current). With constant current, the velocity of the molecules is maintained but generates heat.
- With constant voltage conditions, the velocity of moving ions slows, but it does not generate heat during the course of the run
- At constant power conditions, the velocity slows but heating is kept constant
Electric circuits basic study include many topics which include electric circuits component, electric circuit drawing and Kirchoff’s law, projects. Others are electric circuit simulation software, electric circuit series and parallel, and electric circuit test,
An electric circuit is a means to transport electric power from the source to the load. For electricity to do any useful work, current must flow. Electric current can flow only through conductors and to certain degree in semiconductors. However, insulators will not permit such flow.
An insulator is a material in which electron cannot move easily from one atom to another. Insulators protects against harmful effects of electricity. They have more than four electrons in the valence. Types of insulators include ceramic, glass, plastic, rubber, air, and wood etc.
Atomic structure of insulators:
Electrical conductor materials
A conductor is a material in which electron can move fairly well between atoms. Two metals of the same materials and thickness at different length have different resistance values. The two metals at same length but different thickness exhibits different resistance value. Long wire has more resistance compared to short wire. Thin wire has more resistance than thick wire. A semiconductor is a material such as silicon. Semiconductors are either conductor or insulator materials.
First, there must be a closed path or circuit for current to flow. The closed circuit contains a conductor covered with an insulator, a switch, a source of power (a battery for example) and a load. An example of a load is your appliances. Second, the circuit must have a continuous supply of electrical charges from an electric field such as a battery. Electron (electric current) flows from negative to positive, that is, electron flow. However, in conventional current flow, electron (electric current) flows from positive to negative. Besides, in calculations, you arrived at the same answer, either you choose, electron flow or conventional current flow. But the best approach is that electron flows from negative to positive.
Electric Circuits Component
Flow of current is determined by applied voltage and resistance (or impedance) in the circuit. Keeping resistance constant, increased voltage produce more current flow; reduced voltage reduces current flow. Keeping voltage constant, increased resistance produce less current flow; reduced resistance increases current flow. You can measure current in a circuit with Ammeter and the unit of current is Ampere. A typical electric circuit controls the working of a hot air sterilizer.
Resistance is the property of a material to oppose the movement of electron (current). All electric circuits has inherent resistance. For example, internal resistance from source and resistance in the wire.
Resistor is the name given to a component with pre determined resistance value. Resistance is a characteristic of many electrical appliances called load. Every circuit has certain resistance value
The resistance value of circuit wiring should be minimal to reduce electrical power loss. Some Energy source such as battery has internal resistance and should minimize. You can measure resistance in a circuit with Ohm meter. Unit of resistance is Ohm.
In all electric circuits, electrical voltage is the pressure pushing current to flow in an electric circuit. Unit of electrical voltage is V. You can measure voltage in a circuit by voltmeter. A multimeter has different ranges to measure current, resistance and voltage. That is a multimeter, has Ammeter; Ohmmeter, and Voltmeter. Some versatile meter has more values to measure.
Electric Circuits Law
The voltage across a conducting material is directly proportional to the current through the material, that is, v = Ri, where R (resistance) is the proportionality constant. That is to say, voltage drop or potential difference along a conducting path is directly proportional to the current flowing in the material. Meanwhile, current flowing is a dependent on the resistance of the material.From the slope, you see that when current increase, voltage increases, and when current decreases, voltage also decreases.
With constant voltage, increase resistance, will reduce current. Reduce resistance will increase current. Current (I) = Voltage (V)/Resistance (R). Learn more as we move on to electrical calculations.
Hot air sterilizer Hot air or oven is a device in use to sterilizing items that moist should not penetrate. That is items that will damage by exposure to moist heat. Such items include powders, sharp instruments and petroleum products etc. In other words, we use dry heat sterilization for articles for which other methods…
Electricity and Magnetism
There is close relationship between electricity and magnetism. You can cause electric current to flow in a coil of wire. This is when you cause a permanent magnet to move around (or towards) the wire or coil of wire. The energy of the magnet (magnetic energy) forces electrons in the wire to align in specific ways and produce electricity. The amount of electricity produced depends on the number of turns of wire, the strength of the magnet and how fast you moving the magnet or the coil. In fact, this is the basis of main electric power generators. The two ends of a magnet are North and South pole respectively.Basically, you can’t have so much electricity without magnetism. Electricity and magnetism are not exactly the same but there is a close relationship between them.
When you move a conductor in a magnetic field, you will produce electricity in that conductor. However, you need one of the two materials, (coil of wire or permanent magnet) to keep moving in order to produce the electricity. In fact, there must be a change in the magnetic field of force to produce electricity. Electricity produced depends on the number of turns of coil of wire and the rate of change of magnetic field.
Temporary magnet from electric field
You can make a temporary magnetic field (a temporary magnet) from electricity. When you pass a current through a piece of wire, you have a magnetic field around the conductor. The magnetic field is called ‘magnetic field of current’. You can increase the strength of the magnet by making the wire into a coil. Likewise, increasing the number of turns of the coil. On the other hand, you can increase the flow of current. This is the basis of all electromagnetic devices such as electric motor, relay, transformer, induction furnaces and solenoid. Using Fleming left hand rule, you can determine the north and south pole of the temporary magnet. Meanwhile, you can make current to flow in a wire from permanent magnet.
Induced Current from Magnetic Field
There is a direction to which induced current from magnetic field flows. The current will flow of in any of two ways clockwise or anticlockwise. The direction of flows depends on if the magnet move towards the coil of wire or moving away from it. If there is no movement relative to the magnet and coil of wire, there is no induced current.
Any change in the environment of a magnet and a coil of wire, will cause am EMF or voltage to be ‘induced’ in the coil. It does not matter how you produce the change. You may move the magnet towards or away from the coil. Or you move the coil towards or away from the magnet. You might as well rotate the magnet or the coil. As long there is a movement you induce current. You can confirm which direction current flows by using a galvanometer or an ammeter. Using Fleming right hand rule, you can determine the direction of flow of current.
Solar and Wind Power System
Wind and solar power systems make use of the following components and materials to set it up. When size those components correctly will produce enough power for your use. You can equally sell excess power to the grid. Listed below are major components for your power project.
- Charge controller
- Voltage controller
- Solar panels
- Cable and accessories
- Low Voltage Battery Disconnect (LVBD)
Many solar projects fail where they need it most. The reason is not far-fetched. Likewise, most failure arises from improper component sizing or missing parts, Again, some components are very small, yet are crucial to proper function of the system.
Success Factors for wind and solar power systems
- Enough batteries to maintain the state of charge for a long time and a minimize state of discharge.
- Large enough solar panels to provide sufficient charging current even at an off-peak period.
- Correct size charge controller in the voltage and current
- Voltage controller in system when you don’t need battery
- Size of cable. Position the battery very close to the solar panels and charge controller as possible to minimize cost because you will need large conductor size for high power output.
- The secret of successful solar and wind installer is the low voltage battery disconnect they incorporate in the system.
- Inverter type and sizes. You would not install a square wave inverter where you need a pure sine wave. Otherwise the system would fail because it would not be able to power equipment for which it sufficiently.
In essence, some people think anyone could install solar without sufficient knowledge and skills. Yes! You can learn it and acquire the knowledge and meanwhile, seek support from experienced source when needed.
For some installation, you may include charging the battery by mains grid supplies. This is the case you use the system as a backup Uninterrupted Power Supplies systems.
For your wind power system, you cannot feed the output of the alternator directly to the load. This is because current and voltage from this system is erratic. Therefore, you need battery to receive charging current from the dynamo, then the battery feeds the inverter which in turn feed the load. You may as well use the voltage from the directly to power low voltage direct current.
Electronics Board Assembly is a special job for an electronic technician, most especially in prototyping, or research. Tasks involve in this job include cable assembly, electronic components mounting, and soldering etc. The technician should be able to read and explain electronics assembly drawing, read and take schematic and or circuit diagram. The whole idea is to put the components into the printed circuit board and working correctly. This position also consider knowledge of electrical safety and classes of equipment as important.
Use of printed circuit board make the job easier and for mass production. This is unlike the past where components are hard wired together. Knowledge of schematic drawing and pcb layout editor is an essential skill for this job. This may not be too much of a priority for contract staff hire for this task but for the technician this is part of personal development curriculum.
Component Electronics Board Assembly
All electrical and electronic components has different symbol to know one from the other. We use this symbol to know each component in a circuit diagram. For example, transistor is different from a capacitor. Though, some component may look the same but their look in the diagram is not. A power bipolar transistor look like a fixed voltage regulator, a thyristor and a field effect transistors.
The only thing to tell apart by looking is their part number. Further to this, know the difference between passive and active components is important. This is because you take priority to assemble the passive before the active because active components have more threats to damage. The damages in danger of too much heat and electrostatic discharge.
Electronic components pinouts
Pinouts for a part number of a component may be different for the same component of different part number. Take care to insert the right legs in the PCB board before soldering.
The pinouts shown in the picture above display different shape for the same voltage regulator. The same is true for transistors, capacitor, transformer, and integrated circuits (IC). The same thing relates to triac, diodes, opto isolator or optocoupler, etc.
Many times hobbyist, DIY enthusiasts and even experience technician need help at one time or the other in pursuit of a goal. For the student, hobbyist or DIY enthusiasts, you likely require more explanations and clarity at some points in your electronic projects DIY.
For the experienced technicians, you are pursuing a goal which might be new or existing projects and need to outsource for early accomplishment. This is where we come in to assist.
Printed Circuit Board Projects
Contact Us for your electronic projects DIY schematic and printed circuit board projects. Send us your drafts or tell us more about your project ideas. Then we can discuss the plan together.
Training on PCB Designs
Do you want to use printed circuit boards for your projects and prototypes but you always hand wired your components? It is time to learn to using schematic and PCB editor. It makes your work easier and limits or totally eradicates error. However, error you might have is any committed in your design.
Components for your electronic projects DIY?
Save yourself the problems of wasting time brainstorming alternative methods or equivalent component to use when the actual is not available. Tell us your need and we will help you out. Besides, you might need specialized components which might not even be electronics. Or electronic projects kits, we will assist you to make your plan a success.
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In the first place, you may consider buying pre assembled PCB module for certain work. And all the same need a replacement module for some assignments. We are ready to help you in whatever capacity.
Consequently, we want to assure you are not alone in your journey to success in your endeavor. Specifically for students, hobbyist, technicians and as many as are working on equipment or appliances. Ask Us today and we are glad to help you.,
How is Electricity Produced?
To discuss about producing electricity, we need to know what it is we are talking about. Matter is anything that has weight and occupy a space. Every matter in the normal state is electrically neutral. That is, they have equal number of positive and negative charges in random distribution. When you apply an energy or a force, charge particles (at atomic level) in the matter separates. Negative charges accumulates to one side while positive charges accumulates to the other side. When the charge separates, electricity is produced.
Methods of Producing Electricity
We can produce electricity by any of the following: heat, light and friction. Others are pressure, chemical action, and magnetism.
- Producing Electricity by Magnet. Production of most of our electrical power is by electromagnetic induction, as done in large-scale power plants. Be it a coal-burning plant, hydroelectric plant, windmill generator or a nuclear plant. Besides, the system uses a spinning turbine with magnets to induce voltage in copper coils of an alternator.
- Electricity from chemical actions. Second most common method is through certain chemical actions and reactions that produce free electrons. This is what happens in a cell and battery.
- Electricity from light. The other method to produce electricity is by light. This method uses photovoltaic cells, where sunlight is directly converts into electricity. Electricity from this is known as solar electricity.
- Electricity by heat. This is not common to produce large-scale electricity. However, it serve useful application for remote needs. A Peltier device will produce electricity if it’s two faces are at different temperatures. Essentially, heat energy converts into electricity. Meanwhile, thermocouple employ the same principle to generate electricity from heat in simple way.
- Electricity by pressure. You can convert pressure into electrical energy using simple piezoelectric device.
- Electricity by friction. You can generate static electricity, by rubbing two or more objects to build up friction,
However, electricity from many of the methods are not useful for large-scale applications. For example, electricity from heat, pressure and friction. Nevertheless, they serve useful purposes in instrumentation along with others in transducers, or sensors, transducers is the same as sensor
Examples of transducers converting to electricity include moving coil microphone, quartz microphone and photodiode. Others are light dependent resistor, thermistor, and thermocouple. Further are pressure sensors, capacitive pressure sensors, and yet many others.
How Remote Switch On Off a Circuit?
How remote switch on off? To remote on off a circuit by means of a relay activated by the remote control, the remote control sends out or transmits a radio or infrared signal and there is a receiver which receives the signal sent by the remote. The receiver is inside the small board with relay(s) and it alternates the condition of the relay between open and close to connect or disconnect your circuit. Someone may ask why do I need remote control switch in the home?
- To remotely control your car amp from a distance
- To control many appliances like garage doors, lights, cranes from a distance
- For safety and security purposes
- To control heavy gadgets
You can use this method to remotely control the on or off functions of many lights at an instant; control the movement of garage doors; and many appliances and equipment you might think off. You can use this in your house or factory. You have a receiver switch on each light or group of lights you want to control. Or a relay in a receiver switch for each equipment or appliance you want to control.Relay are either mechanical or electronic switch. If mechanical, they are switch activated by a coil. They are of different types based on how they configure for example, S P S T or Single Pole Single Throw which is no different from a wall switch except its being activated by a coil when it receives a command.
When you connect the appliance you want to control to the NC contact of your relay, it means the appliance is always ON (or Arm) when the relay has not received a command. Therefore when the relay receives a command or control signal, the device turn OFF (or Disarm). On the other hand, when your gadget connects to power via a NO contact, the device is always in the OFF position until you energize the relay to turn it ON. Watch the video below to see a typical relay switch in action.