Category Archives: Blog

pH Meter Design and Working

pH meter is an important tool in chemistry mostly used in pharmaceuticals to determine the acidity or alkalinity of different solutions. It consists of a pH probe that passes electrical signals to the pH meter and displays the pH value of the solution. For accurate measurements, however, pH meters requires proper calibration by dipping it into test solution of known pH and adjusting the meter accordingly. The test solution of known values called buffers. Learn how to calibrate a pH in three ways.

For more exposition on the subject please go through the slide

You can get more information here 

What are a light switch and a dimmer switch?

You can turn On any lights be it at home, in a machine, or vehicle by using the ‘light switch’ but sometimes for some reasons you don’t want the full beam of light therefore, you use the dimmer switch so you can go from high beam to low beam and vice versa. Sometimes the arrangement is three positions, that is, high, low and off. However some applications demand smooth control of light intensity between low and high. In this case intensity is continuously variable using any of different variations and technique used for dimmer. There are different Variations of Dimmer Switch including:

  1. Programmable dimming control via ARDUINO etc.
  2. Some phase shift control by TRIAC
  3. PWM power control
  4. Simple transistor control
  5. Steps Transformer Control
  6. Potentiometer/Rheostat

Where is a dimmer switch useful?

A dimmer will work with incandescent and LED lights, and DC motors; also heating elements such as power control of heating devices like heating element in Water Bath, Incubator, and hot air oven/sterilizers. However there are design variations and complexity but the type of simple control is not smooth but it does work. One good thing about this is that it is durable and sustainable. Precision may not be taken seriously but it is accurate.

Dimmer Switch is used in:

  • Light intensity control for ophthalmic equipment like microscope: ophthalmoscope, slit lamp, bipolar coagulating diathermy etc.
  • Light intensity control for homes and apartment
  • Could be adapted to speed control of small electric motors

How do I make a simple Dimmer switch?

The simplest dimmer switch is a variable resistor also commonly called rheostat. You achieve control by varying the resistance between the light and the power supplies. When a variable resistor is used in a circuit to vary the brightness of a light bulb, you make the resistance greater when you want a dimmer light setting and you make the resistance smaller when you want a brighter light setting. Resistance is increased by increasing the length of the path of resistive material through which the electrons have to flow, and is decreased by decreasing the length of the path. .

Resistance is calculated in an electrical circuit, like the one below, through the use of Ohm’s law, and is measured in the units of ohms.


Effects of Electricity

Electricity produces many results even though it’s invisible but its effects could be felt. Some of its effects are magnetic, physiological, mechanical, lighting/luminosity, heating etc. and all this effects have significant importance in human life and have applications in science, medicine and industries. Check here for additional info Meanwhile check the link below for additional information.

What are the effects of Electricity

The Effects of electricity Electricity is form of energy which could not be seen,but its presence could be detected due to numerous effects it has in our daily living. 1. Mechanical effect An electric fan for ventilation through the rotation of its blades; A vacuum cleaner that cleans our floors with dirt’s.These devices operate because of electricity.


Voltage, Current, Resistance and Relationship between Them

Electricity is  an invisible form of energy but its presence could be felt and detected due to numerous effects it has in  our daily lives. Electricity has such effects as mechanical, chemical – the  best example for a chemical effect of electricity is Electroplating, thermal – a typical example is a vacuum cleaner that cleans our dirty floors, magnetic, and luminous or light effects. For Students, Technicians and Engineers to manipulate and make effective use of electricity and electronics, we need to understand the basics. The basic of electricity starts from Voltage, Current, Resistance and Ohm’s Law which is the relationship between them. Get more from the link below.

Voltage, Current, Resistance, and Ohm’s Law

When beginning to explore the world of electricity and electronics, it is vital to start by understanding the basics of voltage, current, and resistance. These are the three basic building blocks required to manipulate and utilize electricity. At first, these concepts can be difficult to understand because we cannot “see” them.