Solenoid Water Control Valve

What is a solenoid water control valve?

A solenoid water control valve is an electromagnetic device. It function to open or close access to water flow. We can use to open or close access to any fluid such as a gas or oil etc.  The video below demonstrates different component within a typical solenoid valve.

(1) Inside a cheap ebay solenoid water valve  from YouTube

Any current carrying coil will produce a magnetic field. This exert a mechanical force of attraction or repulsion on any magnetic object. It produce the same effect like a permanent magnet. However, in this  case it is an electromagnet because it become a magnet through a current carrying coil. That is, the field could be made to turn ON or OFF as desired by switching the current through the coil ON or OFF signal. This magnetic effect find applications in magnetic relay, solenoid and some other types of transducers.

What is a solenoid valve?

A solenoid is a device that produces mechanical motion when a current carrying conductor coil receives electric current. The movable portion of a solenoid is the armature. A relay is a solenoid set up to activate switch contacts. This occur when its coil receives electric current. The minimum amount of coil current to actuate a solenoid or or relay from its “normal” (de-energized) position is Pull-In current. Drop-out current is the maximum coil current below which an energized relay will return to its “normal” state. See how a solenoid valve works.solenoid water control valve

Armature is the movable magnetic object, and you can move most armatures with either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) energizing the coil. The polarity of the magnetic field is not important for the purpose of attracting an armature. Therefore. you can use solenoids to open door latches by electrical means, open or shut valves, move robotic limbs, and even actuate electric switch mechanisms. Like a relay, a solenoid valve may be normally open or normally closed.

However, signal to energize the solenoid valve could come from a remote switch or another transducer. This may be light sensing, heat sensing or pressure. Others are magnetic sensing, or whatever we desire as our signal source.

Soldering How to Guide

How to Solder

Soldering how to guide focuses on soldering for beginners and how to solder different components using different methods. This information care for the experienced as much as newbies. At first soldering can seem discouraging, when you give it a try, you will find it easy and simple in most applications. Like everything else, a good soldering technique takes practice! Some results of bad soldering technique are dry joints and damage to components especially sensitive electronic components.

Proper Soldering How to Guide

When workings on any electronic project or you are working on any equipment, you will need soldering. Electronic soldering connects electrical wiring and electronic components to strip or printed circuit boards (PCBs). Good soldering practice is essential to successful completion of your tasks because improper soldering will lead to frustrating experience of failed projects, troubleshooting and inability to quickly identify problem areas.

You will need to choose the following equipment and materials carefully:

  1. Soldering iron
  2. Solder
  3. Soldering iron stand
  4. Solder sucker
  5. Soldering braid
  6. Nose mask
  7. Safety goggle

Soldering iron comes in variety of shapes and sizes. They are using ac electricity, battery or gas and the most common type being those powered by ac mains, battery-powered soldering iron is more portable. Electronic components are susceptible to high temperature therefore it is advisable to use soldering iron with a small to medium size solder tips. Consider also that your soldering iron is of sufficient power and it’s able to supply sufficient heat to easily melt the solder.

When working on PCB, use low-wattage soldering iron (25 W to 40 W)

Solder Selection
  • Use solder of suitable tin-lead ratio or percentage because it matters for stress free good workmanship.
  • The greater the tin concentration the greater the solder’s tensile and shear strengths.
  • 63/37 which is translated as 63% Tin by 37% Lead by weight is used principally in electrical electronic works, it’s a eutectic alloy which has the lowest melting point (1830C or 3610F)
    • The best solder is lead free. The particular type I used for my projects is supplied on a reel and has a 0.7mm (1.32”) diameter, and it’s made up of 95.5% tin, 3.8% silver, and 0.7% silver.

Get the rest of the guide here

Anesthetic Machine Failure

Anesthetic Machine Uses

A continuous flow anesthetic machine is most commonly used in advanced  countries of the world. Although its used in many developing countries too.  Its purpose is to deliver accurate and continuous supply of oxygen, nitrous and any other medical gases. In the flow, the oxygen mixes with accurate concentrated anesthetic vapor such as halothane or isoflurane. Further, the mixture is delivering to the patient at a reduced and save pressure through gas regulators and flow meters. However, some anesthetic machine includes ventilator, suction, and patient monitors.

Anesthetic machine failure

Best Anesthetic Machine

It’s nice buying new machine which is affordable compared to used ones. Sometimes, refurbished are not proper and you are unsure of its status. Especially for life saving device like anesthetic machines. Anesthetic machines and ventilator just like other medical equipment are sensitive. Therefore, requires standards especially the vaporizer, rotameter also known as flow meter.

Components which causes anesthetic machine failure include the gas regulators/and gauges requires competent personnel to carry out proper standard tests and calibration. This at most obviously out of reach in most developing countries. You need equipment sources with warranty and maintenance plan. Be it new or refurbished equipment, the margin in price are usually very small. I always recommend new equipment to my clients. You can choose between branded and generic machine and each of them have merits and demerits. Do you need good quality anesthetic machine with ventilator and patent monitor backed with technical and users level training? Contact us for more information.

Anesthetic Machine Failure

Anesthetic machine failure include leakages which are the most common problem with all appliances using air and gas and anesthetic machines and Ventilator are no exceptions. These happen through the joints, and fittings; also through the gas pressure reducing valve (regulators) or the flow meters and this is usually as a result of aged O –rings, ruptured rubber, corrugated tubing and host of many others. However it is imperative to test and confirm there is no leakage of gas be it nitrous, oxygen, air and the anesthetic vapors.

Precautions Handling Anesthetic Equipment
  1. Ensure NO OIL or Grease to avoid fire or explosion
  2. Tight-to-tight! Do not over-tight screws, bolts and nuts to avoid breakage because tubing, piping, nuts and screws are essentially copper and or brass materials.
  3. Use threading tapes for tight fit
  4. Ensure Anesthetic and Operating Rooms floor contains  anti-static rubber materials. Anti Static floor tiles prevents static buildup in the presence of anesthetic vapours.

For more information about medical equipment and (OEM) Original Equipment Manufacturers training, kindly make a request through our Facebook page messenger to us. Include your Email address in your post please. Or you may want to contact us. Meanwhile look forward to our new book ‘The Insiders Guide to Basic Medical Equipment Repairs.”

Electronic Symbol and Components

Who Really Uses Electronic Symbol and Components?

Design Engineers, electrical and electronic technicians and craftsmen all use electronic symbol and components. They use them at one time or the other. The engineer use them as materials for his/her design work. Meanwhile, in time of electrical installation, fabrication, or troubleshooting, all the professionals make use of them.

Electronic circuit symbols are symbolic representation of electrical and electronic components in a circuit or schematic diagram. Combination of components in a circuit and how they relate to each other determines how the circuit function. Meanwhile, position of a component symbols be it parallel or series with others determines its function. However, if you know how, you can fashion out a wiring diagram from circuit and vice versa.

Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and wiring installation is a product of circuits/schematic diagram.

How to read and interpret a schematic diagram

To read a circuit, you begin to trace from the left side of the board. But you need to identify power source and switch from other components and how they interconnect. Reading and translating wiring diagram is a skill in troubleshooting. However, if you can read, understand and interpret a diagram, you can easily identify and isolate problem areas in equipment and appliances.

To acquire the skill is not difficult, all you need to do is to identify each component, know all about each component, understand how one component relates to the other. Meanwhile, understand basic parallel connection, series connection and series-parallel circuit theory.  Listed below are examples electrical electronic components symbols.

Example electronic components and symbols listed are Transformer, Headphone, diodes, transistor, resistor and lots more.

Click on any of the Symbols for expanded view.
electronic symbols typical

For an exercise, get a simple circuit online. Identify the components in the circuit. Then, explain how the circuit works. Finally you can post the circuit and your explanation in the comment, or send as a feedback

Add IC Voltage Regulator to Wall Adapter

How to Add IC Voltage Regulator to Wall Adapter/Battery

Often what you required to run an equipment or device is a well-regulated source of DC power.  To do this, you need to add ic voltage regulator Regulated power supplies gives out stable desired voltage output. You will even need one for your projects. In its simplest form they call it a battery eliminator. For some application the simple battery eliminator is less desirable. Therefore, you need a well-regulated for equipment from batteries and from a wall adapter that outputs a DC voltage

add IC voltage regulator

You can construct a well-regulated power supply. To do this, you add a voltage regulator IC to ordinary DC output from wall adapter or a battery. The voltage regulator is either a fixed type positive (+ve) or negative (-ve). Available also are adjustable voltage regulator. The regulated power supply unit finds application where you require stable power output. They are to power device such as indirect ophthalmoscope, portable light source and host of others. It also functions as a small power supply unit for electronics experiments.

Example for add IC Voltage Regulator:
  • 78xx typical example: 7812 is a positive 12v fixed voltage regulator IC. For example 7805 voltage regulator IC
  • 79xx typical example: 7912 is a negative 12v fixed voltage regulator IC
  • LM317 Adjustable positive
  • LM337 Adjustable negative

The ic voltage regulator for example LM317 looks like power transistor but is a complete regulator on a chip.

Here is a typical circuit:    It is important to identify the pinouts to add IC voltage regulator and to use it appropriately. Here are pinouts for the most common types:

Note: Various manufacturers may label the pins differently than shown. Best approach is to check the datasheet if you are in doubt.

Design Information to add Variable IC Voltage Regulator

For the LM317 circuit above,

  1. R2 = (192 x Vout) – 240, where R2 in ohms, Vout is in volts and from design it’s between 1.2 V and 35 V.
  2. Vin is at least 2.5 V greater than Vout. Select a wall adapter with a voltage at least 2.5 V greater than your regulated output at full load. However, note that a typical adapter voltage may vary quite a bit depending on manufacturer and load. You will have to select one that isn’t too much greater than what you really want since this will add unnecessary wasted power in the device and additional heat dissipation. For example: if expected maximum Vout is 15v. Then R2 = (192 x 17) – 240 = 2,784Ω or 2K8. Vin, then is at least Vout + 2.5v = 17 + 2.5 = 19.5v
  3. As indicated in its data sheet, maximum output current for LM317 is 1 A. Your adapter or battery must be capable of supplying the maximum current safely and without its voltage drop below Vin + 2.5v minimum as declared in 2 above.
Choice of Capacitor
  1. You may add extra filter capacitance (across C1) on the adapter’s output to reduce its ripple and thus the swing of its input. This may allow you to use an adapter with a lower output voltage. This also reduce the power dissipation in the regulator as well. Using 10,000 uF per “amp” of output current will result in less than 1 V p-p ripple on the input to the regulator. As long as the input is always greater than your desired output voltage plus 2.5 V, the regulator will totally remove this ripple resulting in a constant DC output independent of line voltage and load current fluctuations.
  2. Select a capacitor with a voltage rating at least 25% greater than the adapter’s “unloaded” peak output voltage and observe the polarity! For example, if the “unloaded” peak output voltage is 19.5v as calculated for the Vin in 2 above, then voltage of the filter capacitor would be 19.5v + 25% which is approximately 45v.
  1. Wall adapters as battery eliminator may not have any filter capacitors so we will need IC regulator with this type. Quick check: If the voltage on the adapter’s output drops to zero as soon as it is pulled from the wall – even with no load – it does not have a filter capacitor.
  2. The tab of the LM317 ic voltage regulator is connected to the center pin – keep this in mind because the chip will have to be on a heat sink if it will be dissipating more than a watt or so. P = (Vout – Vin) * Iout.
  3. There are other considerations – check the datasheet for the LM317 particularly if you are running near the limits of 35 V and/or 1 A.
  4. For a negative output power supply, use the corresponding negative voltage regulator and note that their pin-out is NOT the same as for the positive variety. See above!

For any support in your design and construction or you get stuck somewhere to add ic voltage regulator, simply Contact Us describe in details how we may help.


Various Schematics and Diagrams

Reproduction of this document in whole or in part is permitted if both of the following conditions are satisfied: This notice is included in its entirety at the beginning. There is no charge except to cover the costs of copying. Introduction High Voltage Power Supplies – Home-built and commercial units.

Transformer instructions

Basic Transformer Action

Transformer instructions give answers to basic questions about transformer. This include principles behind transformer or transformer actions, transformer circuit, connections, current, design calculation, transformer functions and lots more. You will find transformer in many equipment such as UPS, Audio amplifier, DC power supply or Rectifier. Transformer in circuit use includes:

  1. Isolation Protection
  2. ⚡ Voltage Conversion as you normally encounter in distribution and power supply
  3. Impedance Matching Transformer as employed for instance in amplification and
  4. Power Control
Transformer Winding Direction

Some people confuse when they encounter transformer with multiple leads. This they do when troubleshooting or fabricating.  Some of the reasons are they don’t know which one is primary or secondary, not only this, two windings winding may be  out of phase with the other, and if use as it is without consideration  and figuring it out, you get wrong output. Some circuit diagram include transformer instructions on windings. You need to check phase arrangement of the coil before connecting to the rest of the circuit. There is usually marked to indicate this. You can confirm this if you have a circuit diagram to work with and for more information on transformer, check out this video. Send us a reply or questions on the topic for more detail understanding.

Transformer instructions

Transformer Instructions Testing and Repair

Transformer may experience a short or open-circuit depending on the stress to which it encounter. The pry side is more vulnerable if there is a surge especially if it is a step down transformer because it usually has more turns at high resistance. Meanwhile, any problems from the secondary side will reflect on the primary.  To keep your transformer save, use a fuse before the primary and after the secondary. Never bypass any fuse, some manufacturers equipped their transformer with thermal fuse in the primary; in this case when you observe an open in the pry coil look for this. It is cheaper to replace the thermal fuse than the entire transformer. For more on transformer used in electronics and projects CONTACT US.

Suction Apparatus and Suction Machine

A suction apparatus and suction machine is commonly found in the emergency room, the operating room (OR) and clinical wards. To begin with, it extracts fluids such as saliva, vomit and spittle from unconscious patient. This is normal during surgical operation and air from the bronchial airways and postoperative drainage of sites. This is done through tubing and catheter into a suction bottle also known as  canister or reservoir.

The reservoir is normally made of glass or clear solid plastic with markings indicating volume.

Types of Suction Apparatus and Suction Machine

There exist different types of suction apparatus named according to area of application such as for pediatrics, O and G, and for general use. Similarly, some are electrically, vacuum and battery operated. Another category of suction machine are high or low pressure.

Low pressure suction machine is useful in gastrointestinal drainage such as bleeding in the stomach or intestines. The low pressure suction should drain the body fluid in a continuous manner without damaging the underlying soft tissues.

However, the most commonly among suction machine is the electric types. Good for different characterised accuracy and ease of use. This type is usually portable and last longer. Seen below fig. 1, is a portable battery operated suction machine with facilities for recharge of embedded batteries.

Different Components of Suction Apparatus

Components part of Suction MachineThe three important parts of a suction apparatus could classified as:

  • Source of Vacuum which is basically a vacuum pump;
  • The Reservoir which includes one or two suction bottles or canisters and
  • The Delivery Tubing which is a length of flexible plastic tubing which may include a nozzle or a catheter.

Equally important components which makes a suction pump complete are:

  • Bacterial Filter;
  • A Vacuum Gauge;
  • Vacuum Control Valve and
  • Vacuum Cut off Valve and
  • Moisture or Debris Trap.

The efficiency of a suction machine depends on the displacement or the volume of air the pump is able to move. This is usually expressed in liters per minute (l/min). Meanwhile, efficiency is also affected by negative pressure produced by the pump with particular regards to the time taken to achieve it.

A Typical Use of Suction Machine

Airway and Secretions: A tracheotomy is a surgery performed by doctors by inserting breathing tube within a patient’s windpipe. This surgery performed on adults and children and it involves placing a breathing tube below the larynx or voice box. Once this tube is in place, it allows a patient to remove mucus from the lungs and clear out blockages from the airway. As a result, suction machine perform this work so the patient does not have to try to remove this fluid on their own through coughing. [Source: ehow]

Suction Machine Block Diagram

The diagram above shows the components of a high pressure mobile suction apparatus. The difference in block between the low pressure suction and the high pressure suction machine as shown above is the method of producing the partial negative pressure.

The pump is protected from infected materials which could be drawn from the reservoir jar by a trap or filter. There is A Cut-Off Valve within the reservoir jar which operates when the level of fluid in the jar is sufficiently high enough to raise the float ‘F’ so as to prevent any foreign material being aspirated into the pump.

There are alternative positions for the pressure gauge. A trigger valve is fitted close to the nozzle in order maintain a constant standby vacuum in the reservoir jar. [Source: Anesthetic machine by C.S Ward]

Working Principles of Any Suction Unit/Machine

The suction machine is a means of producing a vacuum wherein air is completely sucked out of the canister or reservoir bottle (producing vacuum or negative pressure) hence sucking effects on any fluid the catheter or tubing come in contact with. The sucked air releases to the outside through a filter so as to prevent environmental pollution by sucked materials.

Care and Maintenance of Medical Suction Machine

Suction machine is essential medical equipment for hospital especially in the operating room (OR), emergency room (ER), intensive care unit (ICU) and some wards. This machine if not properly taken care of will serve as potential source of danger to innocent patient and complicate already worsen situation.

A medical suction machine helps remove fluids –vomit, and other secretions during or after surgery

I have seen in some hospitals where if a patient is conscious and know the kind of suction machine they will use for him/her will reject the use of such machine. This is because of the deplorable state of such machines dirty, rusted and unkempt. Thus a patient stands the risks of infections and cross infections by the use of such machine.

To properly care and maintain your suction machine, you need to pay attention to the following:

  • Cleaning of reservoir jar. The reservoir jar hosts suction fluids
  • Cleaning of catheter and delivery hose
  • Ensure integrity of floating stop valve
  • An in the same way minimize leakage current
Cleaning and Parts Replacement
  • The Reservoir or Suction Canister: you must clean the reservoir jar after use. For example, the direction for cleaning may differ by manufacturers because the canister made of different plastic materials or glass. In case of glass reservoir, you need to take precautions in cleaning because it is breakable and equally expensive
  • The Delivery Tubing: clean the catheter after each use by thorough rinsing with hot water and then by a diluted solution of one part to three parts hot water and air dry
  • The Catheter: catheter could be clean following manufacturers’ prescription but replacement is necessary more often
  • Bacterial filter: you must replace bacterial filter every two months or so depending on the amount of use the machine has or anytime the collection bottle overflows
  • Battery Replacement: for battery-powered, ensure the battery is in good charging condition

Common Faults with Suction Machines

  • Cut-off valve failure
  • Improper seal of the suction bottle
  • Soiled filter and


  • Leaky capacitor
  • Power Switch failure
  • Fuse blown or circuit breaker tripped off and
  • Blocked catheter
Troubleshooting A High Pressure Suction Machine 
  • User did not plug the machine
  • You forget to properly set suction pressure via the control switch/knob and
  • Low or no pressure at regulator port

In the same way,

  • No or low pressure at patient port
  • Low or no pressure at end of suction tubing and
  • The bottle cover is not properly in place or seal is missing.

However, if you tried all but does not solve the problem, you need to check The Suction Head. For your safety, you need to disinfect ‘properly’ a suction machine. And as a result, for instructions on how to disinfect a suction machine, check here.

Typical Suction Heads

Finally, there are different types of design of the suction head as illustrated below.

Check out for these:

  • Electrical Safety Test – Include MP3
  • Sources of Quality Suction Apparatus
  • Keeping Your Suction Machine Safe and Hygienic

How to Disassemble and Reassemble a Suction Machine – Show Video and Snapshot –






Medical Suction Machine Fails! What to do?

medical suction machine Medical suction machine is one of the must check before starting a case. An anesthesiologist think through and its of interest to run through a quick checklist of machine; monitors; suction ; airways; IV; drugs etc. to ensure all needed stuffs are intact. There is a necessity to check all equipment and accessories especially the monitor; the anesthetic machine; and the suction apparatus. Notwithstanding, the user checked the items for availability. A Biomedical Equipment Technician need to ascertain all equipment are in good order to function.

Equipment Checklist Before a Procedure

Check the monitors for appropriate probes and secure sensors in place. Sensors are prone to damage through rough handling so its important to keep spare to avoid disappointment, inconveniences and embarrassment. Suction machine on its part are prone to fail due to leakages. The leakages come through cracked and worn-out rubber gasket. This occur at the edge of the lid for the reservoir bottle or from leaks at the joints between the patient nozzle and the reservoir. Similarly, between the plastic tubing and the catheter.

When you have checked the bottle is well covered and well sealed, the gasket rubber may be worn. Similarly if you have a trusty patient plastic nozzle, yet the machine do not come up with usable suction pressure, then, you may need to check the pressure control knob if it’s opened. However, if this is o.k. then, you need to get inside the machine itself. However, someone with technical knowledge is suitable for this tasks because a novice may leave the machine worst than he/she found it.

Problems with Medical Suction Machine

However, do not dismay if you are just starting out but you have some basic technical knowledge, you can confidently open the machine to check little error such as disconnected tubing but if the problem is more than that supervision in the workshop by more experienced technician is necessary. Meanwhile, you can learn more about suction devices

The problem with the machine is probably caused by a leaky capacitor, or open fuse etc. or faulty electric motor especially if fluids managed to escape the cut-off-safety valve into the pump. After you the repair is complete and the machine is now sucking, for safety sake, carry out electrical safety test and do pressure calibration. You need to check the negative pressure with pressure meter and ensure it tally with reading on the gauge. To walk through necessary steps and to receive  updates information and support on medical suction machine and general medical equipment repair and management series, you can Subscribe to Our Mailing List and Newsletter or give your comment below.

Transistor Switch Design

Precautions Switching Inductive Loads

Many times we need to switch inductive load like solenoid valve through a transistor switch. In fact, some tasks require powering a heavy load via a relay or a contactor. The solenoid valve, relay or contactor and any device with coil primarily acts as an inductor. This is because it’s a coil and the inductors do not like sudden changes in current.

Watch this video for thorough understanding.

Source: Ben Krasnow

However, if you interrupts the current flowing through a coil suddenly, for instance when you open the switch. The coil will react with a sudden very large voltage across its leads. Thus causing a large surge of current through it due to collapsing magnetic field, within the coil as the current is interrupts abruptly. Surges in current resulting from inductive spike can results in thousands of voltage. The inductive spike will possibly harm neighboring devices within the circuit such as switches, transistors and relay contacts etc.

Transistor Switch Circuit

In the transistor switch circuit, a way out of inductive spike is to use what is known as transient suppressors. The suppressor interrupts the current through the coil. Typical transient suppressor is a diode across the relay coil in the relay driver shown below.

Fig 1Fig 1 Relay Driver

The circuit above is a typical transistor switch control driven by an input voltage. When sufficiently large voltage and input current applies to transistor’s base lead, the transistor’s collector-to-emitter channel opens. Thus allowing current to flow through the relay coil. Take note of the diode across the relay coil to eliminate imminent damage to the transistor by voltage spike through the switching of the coil.

Sometimes they use an RC network as a transient suppressor especially for relay using ac. But it’s important to use a resistor and capacitor with rating for a potentially large transient current suitable to the coil current.

In the AC Driven Coil with RC transient suppressor shown above, the capacitor absorbs excessive charge. Then the resistor helps control the discharge to safe limit. A typical RC network for small loads driven from the power line uses 100 Ω Resistor and 0.05 µF Capacitor.

Transistor switch snubber
RC Snubber Circuit from Wikipedia.

Electrical Safety Best Practices

The subject of electrical safety for technicians revolves primarily around electrical safety grounding, electrical insulation, and control of humidity. Other factors resulting in general electrical safety are personal protective equipment, proper preventive maintenance procedure and knowledge of electrical safety basics.

Electrical safety best practices

Electrical safety is an important subject for consideration for products that uses electricity. Safety is an important factor before, during and after any electrical work. These electrical works include electrical installation, design and production. Likewise, maintenance, and troubleshooting. Users of electricity too should know what is going on around electrical installations.

Electricity gives power to nearly every appliance we use on daily basis. There were reports of fatal issues related to electricity such as electric shock, fire, burn, and even electrocution and even death. It’s our responsibility as users and handlers to consider safety as primary issues in matters concerning electricity.

Regulatory bodies maintain electrical safety standard:

Worldwide there are government regulations and agencies about safety standards that are mandatory for products to conform with before being accepted to the market. There are safety and standard agencies like ULCE, CSA, BSI, SON, CCC, and so on. Aside the international standard individual countries and region has her regulatory bodies.

Mandatory Safety Tests:

There are series of mandatory safety tests such as “high voltage test’ also referred to as ‘Dielectric Voltage Withstand Test or High Potential Test’. Other mandatory tests are ‘Insulation Resistance Test”, Ground Continuity Test and ‘Leakage Current Test”/Patient Leakage Current Test. You can find those tests and other tests in IEC/CEI IEC 61010 and many other national and international standards and codes. Electrical safety test is very important to safeguard against electric hazards such as fire, shock, and damages to equipments. Not only those, the worst negligence is death by electrocution.

Recommended Class of Equipment:

There are safety recommendations for different classes of equipment. The classes is for specific locations such as hospital; Gas or Petrol station; flour mills; laboratories and lots more.

Physical Observation:

The best way to remain safe when using electricity is to play safe and be aware of your surrounding. Look up and around to see if there any power line especially when working on roof or tree. Electricity is very dangerous near water. Regular check electrical wiring and equipment is a must to avoid catastrophic damages and what do you look for? You need to search out for loose connections, burn outs, water or fluid dripping on wire/cable or sockets and worn out insulation.

What must you do to ensure electrical safety?
  1. Make provision for electrical safety kits
  2. Before you work on any electrical circuit, total isolate the circuit from the power supply and carry out tests. These tests are to ensure that all poles of the circuit are dead.

Other requirements are:

  1. Regularly check all electrical appliances
  2. Replace broken cable
  3. Maintain proper electrical earthing in socket and plugs
  4. Use Proper insulating materials.
  5. Test all electrical appliances before use
  6. Obey national and international standards and codes

Practical Electronics and Innovation Technologies